Friday, April 25, 2008

Alternate History #6: Ottoman Colonialism

The start of the colonial period, in the mid-1500s, was not a time of European supremacy. In fact, the Islamic Ottoman Empire might have been the most powerful force in the world. China was also strong, but far away. There was a viable Iranian Safavid Empire, and a forming Empire in Mughal north India. The Europeans were the ones who colonized for a few reasons:
  1. Their ships could reach the other lands
  2. They built trading empires which liked the goods colonization could bring
  3. They were geographically placed to send many expeditions
  4. They had the wealth to do all this

China fulfills all but the first; they could build better ships, but those kinds of ships were sometimes banned or their voyaging paths restricted. The Islamic Empires fulfill all but the first and third. However, massive ocean-going ships would have been copied from Europeans...if the Islamic Empires had had need of them.

What really changed things was the European control of Gibraltar. The Ottomans couldn't leave the Mediterranean. So how might things have come out differently? Until the very late 1400s, there was an Islamic power controlling southern Spain. If it had somehow held out for another hundred years, it would have afforded safe passage to Muslim ships seeking the Atlantic - specifically Ottoman ones.

In schools, children are taught that the Muslims were pushed out so the Spanish kingdom could be unified. This means that it's unlikely that a Muslim state - Grenada - could have survived as Spain's power rose. Yet the Spanish rulers did not find it necessary to control Portugal in order to 'complete' their country. Yes, Portugal was also Catholic, but the rules had found in necessary to consume the various other Catholic factions of Spain. What I mean by this is that the conception of 'complete' Spain was relatively arbitrary; had the rules been more concerned with French encroachment, or regional separatism, or Portuguese land-grabs, they might not have had time for Grenada.

So Grenada survives. The Ottomans, at that moment trading heavily with Italian powers, get and copy maps of the new world. We have one of those maps, the oldest to accurately map the coast of Brazil. It has captions on it which basically amount to "There are good lands out there and we should go seek them." If, as some would argue, there is no overseas-colonial instinct in the Ottoman world, I would use this map to argue there was.

Where might the Ottomans have colonized? My first guess would be West Africa and the entire western coast of Africa. While the Ottoman slave system was different from the chattel-slave system in West Africa, there were other Islamic (and Eastern European) powers who might have been very willing to take an influx of slaves. There had been an experiment in plantation slavery (like the southern USA) in souther Arabia early in Islamic history, but the Zanj (Black) Revolt had ended the systematic enslavement of East Africans. West Africans, taken far from home and disoriented, might have been easier to control. A large plantation-based system might arise in Iran and south Arabia, but would not likely prosper within the Ottoman lands themselves.

Seeking to keep its sea lanes open, the Ottomans would become heavily involved in politics between Grenada and Spain. When Spain, hoping to cut of the Ottomans and solidify Christian rule over the Peninsula, attacked Grenada, the Ottomans send a massive fleet and army. Spain is beaten back, and Grenada becomes a puppet of the Empire. Ottoman access is never endangered again, as Spain fears a Portuguese-Ottoman alliance if it tries to take Grenada.

Once colonies in West Africa were set up, the Ottomans might have either settled down or kept on sending ships out. I think that once the instinct sets in, they would have kept going. Central America would have been totally under Spanish control; the Ottomans would have sought to balance this. It is possible that South America, or at least the coasts, would be filled with Ottoman traders. North America, especially New England and Canada, would have been cold and unpleasant; the Ottomans might have wanted to keep the southern US and the extremely profitable Caribbean islands, however.

Many European states prohibited slavery on their own soil but allowed and financed it in the New World. The Ottomans might have set up slave systems in the islands and south, much like the ones Europeans set up. By the time France and England began to seriously try to colonize, the continents would have been claimed by Spain and the Ottomans. The only open zone would be in the northern US and Canada, where England was most successful at setting up permanent settlements.

Obviously, attempts to convert the natives to Islam would have been undertaken; the Ottomans in this period had great tolerance for Christians and Jews, but not for polytheistic pagans. The conversion mission might have been even more important to Muslims than Christians, since Muslim empires are very concerned with getting their citizens to worship only one god - no Islamic empire has long allowed a substantial portion of its population to remain pagan/shamanistic/polytheistic.

Ottoman influence would extend down along the coast of Africa. If it reached the Cape, it would have cut off the zone that the Dutch and English used to access their colonies in Asia. If the Ottomans controlled southern Africa well enough, the Europeans might never have been able to station and supply enough troops to take India.

The world would then look like this: Portugal, Netherlands have lands in Asia, mostly islands. Ottomans have some control over the African coast but not inland, as well as the Brazilian coast and southern North America. These zones would be converted to Islam, and would probably speak both their original languages and some dialect of Turkish. They would all use the Arabic writing system, though not many could actually speak the Arabic language. Spain would be worried as hell about messing with Grenada, but would be flush with gold from Central America.

Maybe sometime I will write up a possible Chinese/Japanese colonial race, since that could also have happened if a few things had happened differently.

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